mobile-main-menu-button
Menu

How can we help? What do you want to learn? Search our knowledgebase.

WaveDriver Single Channel (K1) DC Test

Last Updated: 5/20/19 by Neil Spinner

ARTICLE TAGS
  • DC test,
  • single channel test,
  • WaveDriver test
Article Contents/Section Navigation
  1. WaveDriver Single Channel (K1) DC Test
    1. Connect to WaveDriver Dummy Cell
    2. Create a Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) Experiment
    3. Audit Experimental Parameters
    4. Initiate the Experiment
    5. Monitor Experimental Progress
    6. Review the Results
    7. Understanding the Results

1WaveDriver Single Channel (K1) DC Test

This test is performed during the system testing of a Pine Research WaveDriver potentiostat (WaveDriver 200, WaveDriver 200 EIS Bipotentiostat/Galvanostat WaveDriver 100, WaveDriver 100 EIS Potentiostat/Galvanostat and WaveDriver 40 WaveDriver 40 DC Bipotentiostat/Galvanostat models).
Back To Top

1.1Connect to WaveDriver Dummy Cell

Securely connect the cell cable to the front panel of the WaveDriver (see Figure 1 for examples for each WaveDriver model).  Remove any alligator clips from the banana plugs and insert the plugs into the banana jacks with matching colors for each lead on Row “C” of the dummy cell that accompanies the specific model of WaveDriver (for the WaveDriver 200 and WaveDriver 100, it is the EIS Calibration & Dummy Cell; for the WaveDriver 40, it is the Universal Dummy Cell). WaveDriver Dummy Cell Descriptions
 
Be sure to also connect the GRAY banana plug (instrument chassis) to the chassis terminal located on the dummy cell.  Connecting the two chassis terminals together effectively shields the instrument circuitry and the components of the dummy cell within the same overall Faraday cage.
 
WaveDriver Cell Cable Connected to Dummy Cell Row “C”

Figure 1. Cell Cable Connected to Dummy Cell Row “C” for (1) WaveDriver 200; (2) WaveDriver 100; and (3) WaveDriver 40

Back To Top

1.2Create a Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) Experiment

From the AfterMath Experiments menu, choose Cyclic Voltammetry (CV). Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) Doing so creates a “CV Parameters” node within a new archive.  Configure the parameters as shown (see Figure 2).
 
Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) Parameters Dialog Window
1 Click on the “I Feel Lucky” button. Note that default parameters appear automatically (including the Number of Segments, the Sweep Limits, and the Sweep Rate).
2 These parameters control the waveform used during the experiment.
3 Set the Electrode Range to “100 μA” and set Autorange “Off” (this disables auto-ranging and selects the 100 μA range for use throughout the test).
Figure 2. Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) Parameters Dialog Window

TIP: The "I Feel Lucky" button has been renamed "AutoFill" in versions of AfterMath later than May 2019. Newer versions may appear with this change in terminology; however, the functionality of the button remains the same.

Back To Top

1.3Audit Experimental Parameters

Choose the WaveDriver instrument in the drop-down menu (see Figure 3, to the left of the “Audit” button), and then press the “Audit” button to check the parameters.  AfterMath will perform a quick audit of the parameters to ensure that all parameters are specified and within allowed ranges.
Back To Top

1.4Initiate the Experiment

Click the “Perform” button to initiate the CV experiment.  The “Perform” button is located just to the right of the “Audit” button (see Figure 3).  If this step is not possible, consult the AfterMath Installation Guide and permissions files verification step, AfterMath Installation Guide or contact Pine Research directly. Contact
 
Location of Instrument Selection Menu and Perform Button

Figure 3. Location of Instrument Selection Menu and Perform Button

NOTE: If the “Perform” button is disabled (shaded gray), this is an indication that the AfterMath software on the computer is not licensed to control the instrument.  The remedy for this issue is to obtain and install the appropriate permissions files.

Back To Top

1.5Monitor Experimental Progress

Monitor the progress of the experiment by observing the real time plot, the percentage complete value, and the progress bar (see Figure 4).
 
Monitoring the Progress of the CV Experiment

Figure 4. Monitoring the Progress of the CV Experiment

Back To Top

1.6Review the Results

When the experiment is complete, the results of the experiment are placed in a folder within the archive (see Figure 5).  In addition to the main voltammogram plot, additional graphs are available in the “Other Plots” folder.  The results can also be viewed in tabular form under the “experiment” node.
 
Anticipated CV Results (using Dummy Cell Row “C”)

Figure 5. Anticipated CV Results (using Dummy Cell Row “C”)

EXPECTED RESULT: The anticipated test result (see Figure 5) is a diagonally-slanted parallelogram. The slope of this parallelogram (~998 nS) is the reciprocal of the dummy cell resistance (~1.002 MΩ.).  The vertical height at any given position along the parallelogram is related to the dummy cell capacitance (see Section 1.7 for more details).

Back To Top

1.7Understanding the Results

The total resistive load sensed by the working electrode is a series combination of two resistors with values 1.0 MΩ and 2.0 kΩ (see Figure 1 in Section 1.1 of the WaveDriver Dummy Cell Descriptions). WaveDriver Dummy Cell Descriptions The voltammogram is a plot of current vs. potential governed by Ohm’s Law, as shown in Equation 1:
E=iR\;\;\text{(Ohm's Law)} (1)
where E is the potential, i is the current, and R is the resistive load.  Considering that the cyclic voltammogram (see Figure 5) plots current along the vertical axis and potential along the horizontal axis, the slope \left(i/E\right) is equal to the reciprocal of the resistive load \left(1/R=1/1.002\;\text{M}\Omega=998\;\text{nS}\right).
 
To measure the actual slope, right-click on the cyclic voltammogram trace, and then select the “Baseline” option from the “Add Tool” sub-menu.  A baseline measurement tool appears on the voltammogram (see Figure 6), and by adjusting the tool control points, the slope along any portion of the voltammogram can be measured.  The slope along the diagonal part of the voltammogram should be ~998 nS.
 
Analyzed CV Results (using Dummy Cell Row “C”)

Figure 6. Analyzed CV Results (using Dummy Cell Row “C”)

 
The capacitive load presented to the working electrode is ~1.0 µF (see Figure 1 in Section 1.1 of the WaveDriver Dummy Cell Descriptions). WaveDriver Dummy Cell Descriptions The vertical separation observed between the forward and reverse segments at any point along the voltammogram is related to this capacitance.  This capacitance is meant to mimic the double-layer capacitance, C_{DL}, observed at the surface of an actual electrode.
 
Whenever a potential sweep is applied across a capacitive load, a charging current is observed.  In the context of the electrode double-layer concept, the double-layer charging current, i_{DL}, is related to the potential sweep rate, \upsilon, and the double-layer capacitance, C_{DL}, by the following equation:
i_{DL}=C_{DL}\upsilon (2)
A cyclic voltammogram across a capacitor consists of a forward (i.e., charging) segment and a reverse (i.e., discharging) segment.  The vertical separation between the two segments at any point along the voltammogram is two times the capacitive charging current.
 
To measure this vertical separation in AfterMath, right-click on the voltammogram trace and select the “Crosshair” option from the “Add Tool” sub-menu.  Drag the crosshair cursor to any point on the upper segment of the voltammogram and make note of the current and potential at that point (see Figure 6).  Next, create a second crosshair tool and drag it to the lower segment of the voltammogram.  Position the second crosshair at the same (or nearly the same) potential as the first crosshair tool and make a note of the current and potential at that point.
 
Half the difference between the currents measured at the two crosshair points is the charging current.  For the example shown here (see Figure 6), half the difference in current between the two points is calculated as 0.1006 µA.  With knowledge of the potential sweep rate (100 mV/s), the capacitive load can be calculated as 1.006 µF, which is in good agreement with the nominal capacitance shown in the dummy cell circuit schematic.

EXPLORE ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS: Archive nodes often have a “+” sign next to the node name.  Click on this “+” sign to open the node.  In addition to the main plot produced by an experiment, additional results can be found in the “Experiment” node and in the “Other Plots” node.  Nodes may be renamed and organized in folders as desired.

Back To Top
Questions? Find Answers.

Our knowledgebase is the central repository for written content, including help topics, theory, application notes, specifications, and software information.

Select a category below or view the Knowledgebase home page
Software

Detailed information about our Software, which includes AfterMath and retired PineChem.

Applications

Application notes discuss practical aspects of conducting specific experiments.

Theory

Fundamental electrochemical theory presented in a brief and targeted manner.

Product Specifications

Review complete product specifications and compare products within a category here.